Publication – Carl Suddler, « Presumed Criminal. Black Youth and the Justice System in Postwar New York », New-York UP, 2019.

A stark disparity exists between black and white youth experiences in the justice system today. Black youths are perceived to be older and less innocent than their white peers. When it comes to incarceration, race trumps class, and even as black youths articulate their own experiences with carceral authorities, many Americans remain surprised by the inequalities they continue to endure. In this revealing book, Carl Suddler brings to light a much longer history of the policies and strategies that tethered the lives of black youths to the justice system indefinitely.

The criminalization of black youth is inseparable from its racialized origins. In the mid-twentieth century, the United States justice system began to focus on punishment, rather than rehabilitation. By the time the federal government began to address the issue of juvenile delinquency, the juvenile justice system shifted its priorities from saving delinquent youth to purely controlling crime, and black teens bore the brunt of the transition.

In New York City, increased state surveillance of predominantly black communities compounded arrest rates during the post–World War II period, providing justification for tough-on-crime policies. Questionable police practices, like stop-and-frisk, combined with media sensationalism, cemented the belief that black youth were the primary cause for concern. Even before the War on Crime, the stakes were clear: race would continue to be the crucial determinant in American notions of crime and delinquency, and black youths condemned with a stigma of criminality would continue to confront the overwhelming power of the state.

Publication – Joshua M. Myers, « We Are Worth Fighting For. A History of the Howard University Student Protest of 1989 », New-York UP, 2019

We Are Worth Fighting For is the first history of the 1989 Howard University protest. The three-day occupation of the university’s Administration Building was a continuation of the student movements of the sixties and a unique challenge to the politics of the eighties. Upset at the university’s appointment of the Republican strategist Lee Atwater to the Board of Trustees, students forced the issue by shutting down the operations of the university. The protest, inspired in part by the emergence of “conscious” hip hop, helped to build support for the idea of student governance and drew upon a resurgent black nationalist ethos.

At the center of this story is a student organization known as Black Nia F.O.R.C.E. Co-founded by Ras Baraka, the group was at the forefront of organizing the student mobilization at Howard during the spring of 1989 and thereafter. We Are Worth Fighting For explores how black student activists—young men and women— helped shape and resist the rightward shift and neoliberal foundations of American politics. This history adds to the literature on Black campus activism, Black Power studies, and the emerging histories of African American life in the 1980s.

Publication – Eden K. McLean, « Mussolini’s Children. Race and Elementary Education in Fascist Italy », 2018.

Mussolini’s Children uses the lens of state-mandated youth culture to analyze the evolution of official racism in Fascist Italy. Between 1922 and 1940, educational institutions designed to mold the minds and bodies of Italy’s children between the ages of five and eleven undertook a mission to rejuvenate the Italian race and create a second Roman Empire. This project depended on the twin beliefs that the Italian population did indeed constitute a distinct race and that certain aspects of its moral and physical makeup could be influenced during childhood.

Eden K. McLean assembles evidence from state policies, elementary textbooks, pedagogical journals, and other educational materials to illustrate the contours of a Fascist racial ideology as it evolved over eighteen years. Her work explains how the most infamous period of Fascist racism, which began in the summer of 1938 with the publication of the “Manifesto of Race,” played a critical part in a more general and long-term Fascist racial program. 

Publication – Jan Surman, « Universities in Imperial Austria 1848-1918: A Social History of a Multilingual Space », 2019.

Combining history of science and a history of universities with the new imperial history, Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918: A Social History of a Multilingual Space by Jan Surman analyzes the practice of scholarly migration and its lasting influence on the intellectual output in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire.

The Habsburg Empire and its successor states were home to developments that shaped Central Europe’s scholarship well into the twentieth century. Universities became centers of both state- and nation-building, as well as of confessional resistance, placing scholars if not in conflict, then certainly at odds with the neutral international orientation of academe.

By going beyond national narratives, Surman reveals the Empire as a state with institutions divided by language but united by legislation, practices, and other influences. Such an approach allows readers a better view to how scholars turned gradually away from state-centric discourse to form distinct language communities after 1867; these influences affected scholarship, and by examining the scholarly record, Surman tracks the turn.

Drawing on archives in Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Ukraine, Surman analyzes the careers of several thousand scholars from the faculties of philosophy and medicine of a number of Habsburg universities, thus covering various moments in the history of the Empire for the widest view. Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918 focuses on the tension between the political and linguistic spaces scholars occupied and shows that this tension did not lead to a gradual dissolution of the monarchy’s academia, but rather to an ongoing development of new strategies to cope with the cultural and linguistic multitude.

Publication – Scott O. Moore, « Teaching the Empire: Education and State Loyalty in Late Habsburg Austria », 2020.

Teaching the Empireexplores how Habsburg Austria utilized education to cultivate the patriotism of its people. Public schools have been a tool for patriotic development in Europe and the United States since their creation in the nineteenth century. On a basic level, this civic education taught children about their state while also articulating the common myths, heroes, and ideas that could bind society together. For the most part historians have focused on the development of civic education in nation-states like Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. There has been an assumption that the multinational Habsburg Monarchy did not, or could not, use their public schools for this purpose. Teaching the Empire proves this was not the case.

Through a robust examination of the civic education curriculum used in the schools of Habsburg from 1867–1914, Moore demonstrates that Austrian authorities attempted to forge a layered identity rooted in loyalties to an individual’s home province, national group, and the empire itself. Far from seeing nationalism as a zero-sum game, where increased nationalism decreased loyalty to the state, officials felt that patriotism could only be strong if regional and national identities were equally strong. The hope was that this layered identity would create a shared sense of belonging among populations that may not share the same cultural or linguistic background.

Austrian civic education was part of every aspect of school life—from classroom lessons to school events. This research revises long-standing historical notions regarding civic education within Habsburg and exposes the complexity of Austrian identity and civil society, deservedly integrating the Habsburg Monarchy into the broader discussion of the role of education in modern society.

Publication – Matthew Andrews, « Universities in the Age of Reform, 1800–1870. Durham, London and King’s College », 2018.

This book considers a crucial moment in the development of English higher education, and also provides a new and comprehensive history of the early decades of Durham University. During the Age of Reform innovative ideas about the role and purpose of a university were moving at an unprecedented pace. Proposals for new institutions in all parts of the country were developing quickly and resulted in the foundation of Durham University, London University (later re-styled University College, London), and King’s College, London. While normally overshadowed by the London institutions, this book demonstrates not only that Durham attempted to produce a far broader institution than any historian has given its founders credit for, but that a remarkable attempt at a third-way in English higher education has been neglected. Matthew Andrews therefore not only provides the first fully researched account of this important national institution since 1932, but also carefully situates Durham in its contemporary context, and alongside the two other most prominent emerging institutions of that time.

Publication – Liam Chambers et Thomas O’Connor (eds.), « College communities abroad. Education, migration and Catholicism in early modern Europe », 2017.

This book repositions early modern Catholic abroad colleges in their interconnected regional, national and transnational contexts. From the sixteenth century, Irish, English and Scots Catholics founded more than fifty colleges in France, Flanders, Spain, Portugal, the Papal States and the Habsburg Empire. At the same time, Catholics in the Dutch Republic, the Scandinavian states and the Ottoman Empire faced comparable challenges and created similar institutions. Until their decline in the late-eighteenth century, tens of thousands of students passed through the colleges. Traditionally, these institutions were treated within limiting denominational and national contexts. This collection, at once building on and transcending inherited historiographies, explores the colleges’ institutional interconnectivity and their interlocking roles as instruments of regional communities, dynastic interests and international Catholicism.

Publication – Peter Higginbotham, « Children’s Homes: A History of Institutional Care for Britain s Young », 2017.

What image does the word ‘orphanage’ conjure up in your mind? A sunny scene of carefree children at play in the grounds of a large ivy-clad house? Or a forbidding grey edifice whose cowering inmates were ruled over with a rod of iron by a stern, starched matron? In Children’s Homes, Peter Higginbotham explores the history of the institutions in Britain that were used as a substitute for children’s ‘natural’ homes. From the Tudor times to the present day, this fascinating book answers questions such as: Who founded and ran all these institutions? Who paid for them? Where have they all gone? And what was life like for their inmates? Illustrated throughout, Children’s Homes provides an essential, previously overlooked, account of the history of these British institutions.

Publication – Massimo Castoldi, « Insegnare libertà. Storie di maestri antifascisti », 2018.

Fin dall’insorgere del fascismo vi fu una parte della classe magistrale, fieramente risoluta nel proprio compito, disposta a combatterne con ogni mezzo la propaganda. Per questo tra 1921 e 1945 molte maestre e molti maestri furono costretti a lasciare l’insegnamento, conobbero il confino, caddero vittime della violenza fascista e poi, anche, di quella nazista. Nei primi anni del secolo, dalla fondazione dell’Unione magistrale nel 1900 all’istituzione del Sindacato magistrale aderente alla Confederazione generale del lavoro nel 1919, i maestri avevano acquisito sempre più consapevolezza del loro ruolo di educatori e di operatori sociali, non ritenendosi più soltanto sacerdoti laici con la missione dell’educazione nazionale. Sentivano di dover partecipare in modo attivo alla vita socio-culturale dell’Italia, nella lotta contro l’analfabetismo, nella creazione di una coscienza civica e unitaria, ma anche nello sviluppo del socialismo o del cattolicesimo popolare, che, sebbene in conflitto tra loro, si fondavano sulla medesima necessità di un’istruzione diffusa. Se il fascismo guardò alla scuola elementare come al luogo di formazione e di costruzione della coscienza del nuovo bambino soldato fedele al regime, molti maestri ne contrastarono il linguaggio e i modelli culturali, educando i bambini a principî alternativi: patriottismo, e non nazionalismo, solidarietà, fratellanza e libertà, anziché violenza, razzismo e cieca obbedienza. Le dodici storie qui raccontate rappresentano modalità differenti di opposizione alla cultura dominante, da quelle più aperte e frontali a quelle più calcolate e addirittura dissimulate. Uomini e donne, socialisti, cattolici, liberali o semplicemente patrioti, questi maestri testimoniano che la loro battaglia silenziosa fu possibile, nonostante tutto, e che è stata, ben oltre la sfida e la ribellione, una vera lezione di Resistenza civile.

Publication – Paolo Alfieri, « Le origini della ginnastica nella scuola elementare italiana. Normativa e didattica di una nuova disciplina » [Les origines de la gymnastique à l’école primaire italienne…], 2017.

Il libro ricostruisce le origini dell’educazione fisica nella scuola elementare italiana, ripercorrendo il processo di istituzionalizzazione di questa disciplina, che, esclusa dai percorsi di istruzione popolare ideati ed attuati negli Stati preunitari, guadagnò una sempre più decisa legittimazione nel curricolo primario dell’Italia del secondo Ottocento. L’analisi della normativa e degli strumenti teorici e pratici messi a disposizione dei maestri consente di documentare come le attività motorie siano state dapprima ignorate, poi timidamente accolte e infine integrate tra le finalità ed i metodi del primo ciclo di istruzione del nostro Paese. Attraverso una ben centrata focalizzazione tematica ed euristica, che si concentra soprattutto sul contesto scolastico, la ricerca asseconda le recenti istanze della storiografia educativa poiché fa emergere non solo i significati politico-pedagogici della ginnastica come disciplina della scuola elementare, ma anche le modalità didattiche con cui si realizzava il suo insegnamento.

Publication – Francisco Javier Alejo Montes, « La cofradía en defensa de los estudiantes presos en la cárcel de la Universidad de Salamanca del siglo XVI », 2016.

Desde el siglo XIV hasta principios del siglo XIX los miembros del gremio universitario salmantino estuvieron bajo la jurisdicción del juez del Estudio, llamado maestrescuela, que contaba con el apoyo de la audiencia escolástica (formada por jueces, fiscales, procuradores, notarios y alguaciles) y disponía de una cárcel propia para quienes delinquían. En la segunda mitad del siglo XVI se produce un claro deterioro del ejercicio del poder por parte del maestrescuela y su audiencia (con abusos, detenciones sin pruebas, extorsión a los detenidos, dilaciones en los juicios…), por lo que el rector, un estudiante, plantea en el claustro universitario la creación de una cofradía para ayudar y defender a los estudiantes que, al ser apresados, quedaban totalmente desvalidos. Los estatutos de esta cofradía son aprobados por el claustro de la Universidad y sancionados por Felipe II en 1568, pero el maestrescuela pone todos los medios a su alcance (¡incluida la excomunión!) para impedir su ejecución, lo cual es fuente de graves tensiones y conflictos a lo largo del siglo.

Publication – Patricia Badenes Salazar, « Fronteras de papel. El Mayo francés en la España del 68 », 2018.

« Fronteras de papel. El Mayo francés en la España del 68 » es un viaje a un período clave de la historia del pasado siglo XX. 1968 es uno de esos años excepcionales que marcan un antes y un después en el devenir histórico, y en él brilla con luz propia el todavía más simbólico Mayo francés. Una revuelta estudiantil, una huelga general, una revolución social y cultural…, numerosas expresiones tratan de captar su esencia. En el fondo, todas, o muchas de ellas, son verdad. La palabra liberada fue otra de sus grandes aportaciones y alumbró frases como: « Les frontières, on s’en out! » (¡Las fronteras no nos importan!), pues el deseo de sus protagonistas era ir más allá de los constreñidos muros de un país para « transformar el mundo y cambiar la vida ». Algo del torbellino que se generó en Francia llegó a España a través de unas fronteras más permeables de lo que creía el régimen franquista. Unas fronteras de papel en el sentido de que la prensa española se volcó en un evento que pronto intuyó histórico. El interés por los sucesos franceses fue una realidad en nuestro país. Incluso hubo influencias en los movimientos sociales y en el arte plástico. Asimismo, fue una realidad el temor al contagio que se apoderó de la clase política franquista, cuyo sistema no habría podido soportar el envite de semejante remolino de viento fresco, a pesar de creer que sus absurdas fronteras nos podían mantener todavía aislados del resto del mundo. 

Publication – Carla Ghizzoni, « Scuola e lavoro a Milano fra Unità e fascismo. Le civiche Scuole serali e festive superiori (1861-1926) » [École et travail à Milan de l’Unité au fascisme], Pensa, 2014.

Il libro ricostruisce la genesi e gli sviluppi delle Scuole serali e festive superiori del Comune di Milano. Non previste dalla legge Casati, esse furono volute dall’amministrazione ambrosiana subito dopo l’Unita al fine di provvedere alla scolarizzazione postelementare di giovani donne e uomini che, per necessità e per condizioni sociali, non continuavano gli studi finite le elementari, ma ambivano a una preparazione che consentisse loro di migliorare la posizione professionale. Apprezzate dalla città, nel corso degli anni queste Scuole specificarono la proposta formativa cercando di adeguarla alle esigenze di un mondo del lavoro in trasformazione nella Milano di fine ’800 e dei primi del ’900.

La storia di questi istituti è analizzata dalle origini fino all’avvento del fascismo, allorché modificarono l’ordinamento, prevedendo corsi analoghi a quelli del sistema scolastico governativo. La ricerca, condotta sulla base di documentazione archivistica e a stampa coeva, non si limita all’approccio istituzionale, ma fa luce sulla vita interna alle Scuole, con attenzione ai modelli educativi veicolati, agli allievi, alle materie proposte. Essa va oltre i confini locali e offre suggestioni in merito al più ampio tema dei processi di accesso all’istruzione postelementare che sfuggono ai circuiti delle scuole diurne tradizionali, su cui si è prevalentemente concentrato l’interesse degli studiosi.

Publication – Roberto Sani, « Storia dell’educazione e delle istituzioni scolastiche nell’Italia moderna », Franco Angeli, 2015.

La prima parte di una più ampia storia dell’educazione e delle istituzioni scolastiche nell’Italia moderna e contemporanea, destinata a completarsi con la pubblicazione di un volume dedicato ai secoli XIX e XX. Il testo offre una ricostruzione delle principali tappe che hanno contrassegnato l’evoluzione dei modelli educativi e tenta di ‘rileggerne’ taluni passaggi fondamentali alla luce delle categorie interpretative proposte dalla più recente storiografia sociale e religiosa italiana ed europea.

Parution – Sol Serrano, Macarena Ponce de León, Francisca Rengifo, Rodrigo Mayorga, « Historia de la Educación en Chile (1810-2010) », 2012-2018.

Résumé du tome I

La educación se inicia cuando por algún motivo y para alguien se hace necesaria. En Chile, la extensión de la escuela fue una iniciativa republicana del Estado y las comunidades locales. Desde metodologías muy diversas, este libro trasciende la historia interna de la educación para preguntarse por quienes la demandaron y quienes accedieron a ella. Por eso la geografía, la demografía, la creación de la estadística nacional y la institucionalización del sistema educacional conforman la base empírica para estudiar la relación entre el proyecto político, la escuela, las familias y la estructura productiva.

Se llega así a la escuela misma, a la formación de los preceptores, a las prácticas pedagógicas y a los métodos de enseñanza. Además, se busca comprender qué aprendieron los niños, considerando los textos escolares y su circulación, la formalización del aula como un espacio para enseñar, y las técnicas de aprendizaje aplicadas a alumnos que asistían esporádicamente a clases.

Se prueba finalmente que la escuela fue la primera y la única política social del siglo XIX en Chile que impulsó un desarrollo significativo de la alfabetización. Fue la institución más extendida en el territorio del Estado nacional en formación, la red más inclusiva del período

Résumé du tome II

Entre 1880 y 1930 la educación fue el centro de las transformaciones sociales y se constituyó en el principal agente democratizador de la sociedad chilena. La cobertura escolar creció a un ritmo inusitado, no obstante las dificultades inherentes a la pobreza de la población.

Así, la Ley de Educación, que estableció la obligatoriedad escolar, inauguró las políticas sociales en el país. La escuela pública se institucionalizó, llegó a más niños, y estos aprendieron más y mejor.

La educación también permitió el ingreso de nuevos actores al espacio público: las mujeres se incorporaron a la educación secundaria, el movimiento obrero creó sus propias escuelas y los niños mapuches, aunque pocos, pudieron reivindicar sus derechos.

Résumé du tome III

Si en el segundo tomo se constató que el sistema educativo fue exitoso en términos políticos y culturales, en este volumen vemos, más bien, cómo la educación se enfrentó, sobre todo, a las bondades y restricciones de la productividad económica y su impacto en el desarrollo social.

Si en el periodo analizado los discursos enfatizaban las «reformas» llevadas a cabo por los gobiernos del Frente Popular, luego se comenzó a hablar de «crisis», yes que los deficientes resultados de los estudiantes, el alzadel analfabetismo o el aumento de la deserción escolar, «desarrollaron un malestar social, una crítica que fue conceptualizada como una especie de desajuste crónico entre la aspiración de un cambio en la estructura social y cultural del país, por una parte, y el desarrollo económico y sus resultados por otra».

Las movilizaciones estudiantiles de los cincuenta y sesenta no solo son una expresión de este descontento: son al mismo tiempo el anuncio de un malestar por venir, aun mayor, una crisis que dio inicio a una nueva etapa en nuestra historia.

Parution – Jean-Noël Luc, Jean-François Condette et Yves Verneuil, « L’enseignement en France (XIXe-XXIe siècle) », 2020.

Présentation :

Alors que la question de l’enseignement reste plus que jamais discutée, ce volume offre un panorama exceptionnel sur l’histoire de l’enseignement de la maternelle à l’université, de l’époque napoléonienne jusqu’à nos jours. Il présente les structures, les pratiques, les réformes, les innovations et les contestations qui ont marqué plus de deux siècles d’activité enseignante.

L’ouvrage interroge les méthodes préconisées et leurs applications en replaçant le fait éducatif dans ses dimensions politiques, économiques, sociales, culturelles nationales, voire internationales. Exhaustif et sans parti pris, il sera utile à tous ceux, acteurs ou témoins, qui interrogent les nouveaux défis de l’enseignement en France.

Parution – Jean-François Dupeyron, « A l’école de la Commune de Paris », 2020.

Résumé

La Commune de Paris fête son 150e anniversaire en 2021. Sa pensée éducative et son action effective en matière scolaire sont encore très peu connues car le modèle dominant de l’histoire scolaire française les oublie systématiquement.

Pourtant, la première laïcisation des écoles publiques fut l’œuvre de la République de Paris dès le 2 avril 1871. De même, celle-ci, dans les conditions extrêmement difficiles que lui imposa le second siège de Paris, entama la construction d’une école inspirée par la pensée pédagogique des divers socialismes du XIXe siècle. La notion d’éducation intégrale fut au cœur de cette approche d’une éducation nouvelle, qui voulait « qu’un manieur d’outil puisse écrire un livre, l’écrire avec passion, avec talent, sans pour cela se croire obligé d’abandonner l’étau ou l’établi ».

Cet ouvrage se consacre à l’étude de l’œuvre scolaire de la Commune de 1871 et propose de réhabiliter une histoire pédagogique presque totalement méconnue : celle qui va des projets pédagogiques ouvriers dès les années 1830 au projet syndical d’école rouge de la jeune CGT avant le premier conflit mondial, en passant par l’école nouvelle élaborée par la Commune.

Parution – Guillaume Périssol, « Le Droit Chemin. Jeunes délinquants en France et aux États-Unis au milieu du XXe siècle », 2020.

Résumé :

Le premier tribunal pour enfants apparaît en 1899 à Chicago. Ce modèle, saturé d’idéaux de compassion et de réhabilitation, connaît un succès mondial. Que signifie une telle réussite ? La comparaison franco-américaine permet de mieux comprendre les systèmes de justice des mineurs, actuels et passés. Zazous, prostitués, blousons noirs : la période qui suit la Seconde Guerre mondiale est particulièrement propice à l’analyse, à travers de multiples portraits. Se posent alors de manière aiguë des questions sur l’autorité et l’éducation, dans un contexte de panique internationale autour de la délinquance juvénile.

Cet ouvrage s’inscrit dans un champ interdisciplinaire innovant, au croisement de l’histoire de la jeunesse et de l’histoire de la justice et du contrôle social. Il s’appuie sur des sources inédites, comme les dossiers des tribunaux pour enfants de Boston et de Paris. Ces archives très riches permettent de découvrir les jeunes jugés déviants et les moyens employés pour les remettre dans « le droit chemin ».