Parution – “Outdoor Education in Historical Perspective”, History of Education Review, Volume 49, Issue 1, 2020

Outdoor education in historical perspective

Mark FreemanJayson Seaman

Dartmouth Outward Bound Center and the rise of experiential education, 1957–1976

Jayson SeamanRobert MacArthurSean Harrington

Czech education in nature traditions

Andrew MartinGeoff WatsonJan NeumanIvana TurčováLucie Kalkusová

‘Doing nature’ and being a Guide: the problem of the town guide in the British Girl Guides Association, 1930–1960

Sian Edwards

“You can’t be an atheist here”: Christianity and Outward Bound in Britain, c.1941–1965

Mark Freeman

Outdoor education: the Romantic origins at the University of St Mark and St John

Mark LeatherGil FewingsSu Porter

The adventure (sex)pedition: revisiting Kurt Hahn’s educational aims

Franklin Vernon

Parution – “Cultivating Children and Youth: Transnational Explorations of the Urban and the Natural”, History of Education, Volume 49, Issue 4 (2020)

Editorial: Cultivating children and youth: transnational explorations of the urban and the natural

Ian GrosvenorFrederik Herman & Siân Roberts

‘Nature’ in German colonial literature for children and young people

Elke Kleinau & Lilli Riettiens

The urban and the natural in education reform: the development of Hamburg Schullandheime (rural school hostels) in the 1920s

Christine Mayer

Natura et urbis in the socio-educational renovation of Barcelona City Council (1909–1933)

Francisca Comas Rubí & Sara González Gómez

Cultivating an ‘earthly paradise’: nature, informal education, and the contested politics of youth citizenship, 1910s–1940s

Siân Roberts

‘Dirt and the child’: a textual and visual exploration of children’s physical engagement with the urban and the natural world

Ian Grosvenor & Kevin Myers

The multiple logics of school gardening: a ‘return to nature’ or ‘love of labour’?

Elsie Rockwell

Images of industrial life and vocational training: Scouting as a liminal space for educating a workers’ elite in 1920s Luxembourg

Frederik Herman & Karin Priem

From savages to capitalists: progressive images of education in the UK and the USA (1920–1939)

Sjaak Braster & María del Mar del Pozo Andrés

Parution – Björn Lundberg, “Naturliga medborgare: Friluftsliv och medborgarfostran i scoutrörelsen och Unga Örnar, 1925–1960 [Citoyens naturels : vie en plein air et éducation civique dans le mouvement scout et les Jeunes Aigles, 1925-1960], Lund University Publications, 2018


The aim of this thesis has been to examine outdoor activities and camping, framed within the Scandinavian notion of friluftsliv, as methods for promoting citizenship in two Swedish youth organisations: the Scout movement and Unga Örnar (“Young Eagles”). What knowledge and abilities characterised ideal citizenship; how was instruction in citzenship for children conducted and more specifically, how were nature and friluftsliv employed as resources to accomplish training for citizens? The results of this study show that friluftsliv as an educational method in these organisations, most notably in the Scout organisations, reflected ideas about active citizenship understood as civic, everyday practice. Using the Foucauldian concept of (liberal) governmentality, outdoor life has been analysed as a technology of citizenship serving to shape behaviour and routines of its practitioners. This perspective has sought to explain instruction in citizenship as a practice of the scout movement, where scouts were taught to become self-reliant and self-regulating members of society by making themselves at home in nature. The construtcion of camps as ’miniature societies’ has been analysed using the concept of heterotopia. The organisation Unga Örnar also incorporated elements of self-reliance and self-regulation in its programme for citizenship education, but put more emphasis on citizenship as political practice. Consequently, camps were employed as arenas for instruction in democratic participation, for example by enacting parliamentary elections.

Attention has also been given to changes in camp practices and citizenship training over time, especially the impact of the Second World War on friluftsliv and camping. While the process was multi-faceted, elements of practical and useful work (especially agricultural) were integrated in the daily routines of many camps during the years 1940–1945. After the war, ideals of citizenship changed in important ways. The scout movement put more emphasis on cooperation between boys and girls, and to a certain degree political participation. Unga Örnar continued to arrange camps and practice friluftsliv, but renounced romanticism of wilderness instead addressing contemporary social and political issues. Finally, this thesis has examined relationships between national citizenship and internationalism, highlighting that many camps were arranged as international spaces. After the Second World War, international cooperation was marked by an increasingly asymmetrical relationship.

In conclusion, this study has engaged in the historiography of outdoor life and camping in addition to its empirical examination of citizenship as practice. By linking spaces of nature to habits of self-discipline and democratic participation, this thesis has explored practices of outdoor life as methods to promote active citizenship among children and youth.


Avhandlingen Naturliga medborgare undersöker hur frilfutsliv och lägerverksamhet använts som metoder för medborgarfostran i scoutrörelsen och Unga Örnar under perioden 1925–1960. Frågorna som undersökts innefattar hur organisationerna artikulerade ideal om medborgarskap, hur barn och ungdomar skulle fostras till goda medborgare samt mer specifikt hur natur och friluftsliv skulle bidra till att förverkliga det goda medborgarskapet. Resultaten från undersökningen visar att organisationerna förespråkade ett aktivt medborgarskap, och fostran i medborgarskap innefattade därför olika praktiker. Barn skulle lära sig agera som goda medborgare. I scoutrörelsen lades tonvikten på civilt deltagande medborgarskap, medan Unga Örnars fostran har karakteriserats i termer av politisk deltagande. Element av dessa medborgarideal återfanns dock i båda organisationerna. Medborgarfostran har också analyserats ur ett styrningsperspektiv och självreglerande praktiker, där friluftslivet fungerat som ett sätt att lära barn reda sig själva. Med utgångspunkt i begreppet heterotopi har lägren analyserats som platser där ideal om samhälle och natur iscensattes genom deltagarnas aktiva medverkan.
Uppmärksamhet har också ägnats åt förändring över tid, bland annat andra världskrigets nyttoinriktade lägerverksamhet och jordbruksarbete samt efterkrigstidens förändringar kring medborgarideal. Avslutningsvis har friluftslivet studerats som både nationell och internationell praktik, där ideal om svenskhet och transnationella gemenskaper samverkade.

Parution – “Education and Nature”, revue Paedagogica Historica, Volume 56, Issue 1-2 (2020)

AàC – “Histoire et archives de l’animation nature et de l’éducation à l’environnement en France dans les années 1970-1990”, PAJEP, mars 2022

Les années 1970-1990 furent celles de l’émergence de l’animation nature en tant que secteur professionnel, à une époque où les préoccupations écologistes se cristallisent. Au cours de ces deux décennies, des expériences naissent, souvent très localisées, où s’élaborent des conceptions éducatives et des modalités pédagogiques, en lien avec les transformations contemporaines de l’école, les représentations de l’environnement ou les contestations écologistes. La position de l’animation environnement au carrefour des sciences et pratiques naturalistes, de la protection, de l’éducation populaire, du monde de l’école mais aussi des sports de pleine nature implique une ouverture au-delà des disciplines de référence que seront l’histoire et les sciences de l’éducation. Les organisateurs attendent donc des contributions venues de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie, des sciences de l’environnement, des sciences et techniques des activités physiques et sportives, etc.

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